The Istanbul Observatory
The painting shows workers at the observatory of Taqi al-Din at Istanbul in 1577 (AH 985). Two observers are working with an astrolabe. A universal astrolabe of the saphea form is on the table in front of the man with the dividers and paper.
The painting is from Shahinshah-nama (History of the King of Kings), an epic poem by 'Ala ad-Din Mansur-Shirazi, written in honor of Sultan Murad III (reigned 1574-95 [AH 982-1003]).